The function estimates surface roughness (m) from empirical wind speed (m s-1) data collected at a vector of heights (m) (Kingsolver and Buckley 2015; Campbell and Norman 1998; Porter and James 1979) .

surface_roughness(u_r, zr)



numeric wind velocity (m s-1) at a vector of reference heights.


numeric vector of reference heights (m).


numeric surface roughness (m).


Campbell GS, Norman JM (1998). Introduction to environmental biophysics, 2nd ed. edition. Springer, New York. ISBN 0387949372.

Kingsolver JG, Buckley LB (2015). “Climate variability slows evolutionary responses of Colias butterflies to recent climate change.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 282(1802). doi:10.1098/rspb.2014.2470 .

Porter WP, James FC (1979). “Behavioral Implications of Mechanistic Ecology II: The African Rainbow Lizard, Agama agama.” Copeia, 1979(4), 594--619. ISSN 00458511, 19385110, doi:10.2307/1443867 .


  surface_roughness(u_r = c(0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2), 
                    zr  = c(0.05, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1))
#> [1] 0.1100434